How Many Watts Per Square Foot (Watt/Sq Ft) When Growing Cannabis?
The right number of LED grow lights, or rather the power of LED grow lights, for indoor growing can roughly be estimated based on the w/sq ft (watt per square feet, or square meter) principle. As light output from LED grow lights somewhat correlates to consumed power (watt), planning the light setup for a grow space by using established w/sqft recommendations is a quick and easy way to estimate one’s light needs. This is what you need to know.
Choose a LED grow light with the right power for your grow space by calculating watt/sq ft
In the growing community it is not uncommon to purchase grow lights based on the “watt per square feet (or square meter)” principle. This can be an easy and useful method assuming that equally good lamps are compared to one another. If PPFD maps (more on this later) aren’t presented by the lamp manufacturer, the watt/sq ft principle could be the only reasonable way to assess a lamp’s ability to light up a grow space. Some lamp types perform significantly better than others (operate at higher efficacy, PPE or µmol/J) and will require fewer watts to emit equal amounts of light, so compare apples to apples and oranges to oranges. Efficacy, or PPE (Photosynthetic Photon Efficacy), tells us how efficiently a lamp converts electricity (watts) into light (photons).
Two lamps that both draw 100W but one operates at an efficacy of PPE 1.0 µmol/J and the second lamp operates at an efficacy of PPE of 2.0 µmol/J. As the first lamp is only half as efficient, it will only produce half as much light (photons) as the second lamp. In other words, the second lamp will emit twice as much light as the first lamp but draw the same amount of power (watts).
The presumption of the watt/sq ft principle is: to figure out how many grow lights one needs for a grow space, all one has to know is the space’s area, a 3x3’ or 9 sq ft tent, for example. Then use the established “rule” for how much power a certain grow area needs.
Rule of thumb for watt/sq ft:
Low efficacy, generic “Amazon” lights (PPE: ~1.0 µmol/J): 50-60w/sq ft (525-640w/sqm)
Medium efficacy, “housing”-type lights (PPE: ~1.5 µmol/J): 30-40w/sq ft (320-430w/sqm)
High efficacy, panel with quality diodes (eg. Samsung, Osram), or (Cree) COB-type lights with high-end driver (PPE: ~2.5 µmol/J): 25-30w/sq ft (265-320w/sqm)
To fill a 3x3’ (9 sq ft) tent using high efficacy lights, a total consumption of 25 to 30w*9 sq ft = 225-270 watt is needed. This could be achieved by either one lamp or several lamps.
To fill a 2x2’ (4 sq ft) tent using medium efficacy lights, a total consumption of 30 to 40w*4 = 120-160 watt is needed. This could be achieved by either one lamp or several lamps.
These would be ideal conditions. Plants will naturally also grow under less than ideal conditions but possibly not quite to their fullest potential. Using a 200W instead of a 225W lamp in a 3x3’ space would also work very well, even though it’s slightly under the guidance. Further reducing light to 150W or 100W would, however, significantly reduce yield.
On the other hand, increasing the watt/sq ft above recommendations can potentially increase the yield although the increase may be small or even marginal.
But there’s more to it…
Another thing to consider: the spread of light (light footprint/PPFD map)
After determining roughly how strong LED grow lights are needed for a grow space, the next aspect to consider is how the light is projected from the lamp, i.e. how well the light spreads over the grow area.
Some lamps come with focusing lenses which give high intensity underneath the lamp but low intensity farther away from the center. A lamp should as evenly as possible cover the grow area with light, reaching PPFD around 600-900 µmol/m2/s but preferably no less than 200 µmol/m2/s. Light intensities below PPFD 200 drive photosynthesis poorly.
Compare different lamps’ footprint with one another; which covers your grow area best?
Because high efficacy lamps emit more light per consumed watt, mainly due to their highly efficient diodes and driver, this type of lamp requires fewer watts to achieve the same light output as a simpler lamp. Diode brands like Samsung, Osram, Cree, and some Bridgelux models, can deliver twice or higher quantities of light than generic brand diodes. Good diodes accompanied by a reliable and efficient driver like Mean Well or Inventronics make for a highly efficient system.
All LED lamps are not created equal. Outer appearances can make two vastly different LED lamps look the same. But it’s the total build quality, diodes, driver, and light spread that matter.
As an example, our newly released LEDTonic Q7 quantum panel LED grow light delivers a high PPFD and also offers a good and even spread of light. With its double-panel design it reduces otherwise common light intensity hotspot and covers a larger area with uniform light intensity. As the panels are independently horizontally and vertically adjustable, the Q7 offers great flexibility to any grow space.
It can both be used in 3x3’ and 4x4’ tents with great results. See the PPFD maps below how the average PPFD will vary depending on the grow area.
Above we see the LEDTonic Q7 LED grow light, with a 320W output, PPFD measured in both a 4x4’ and a 3x3’ grow tent. We see that the results in the 4x4’ tent, 16 sq ft area, give an average PPFD of 496 while the smaller tent, the 3x3’, 9 sq ft, has an average PPFD of 793.
Applying the watt/sq ft principle results in a value of 20 watt/sq ft in the 4x4’ tent and a value of 35 watt/sq ft in the 3x3’. The light footprint map clearly shows how applying the principle can give a rough estimate of how well a LED grow light illuminated a grow space, but again, looking directly at PPFD values gives a clearer picture.
An easy and quick way to estimate how powerful LED grow light is needed for a particular grow space is to measure the space’s area in square feet (or square meters). Then multiply the area with proven constants, as follows:
Low efficacy, generic budget lights: 50-60w/sq ft (525-640w/sqm)
Medium efficacy, “housing”-type lights: 30-40w/sq ft (320-430w/sqm)
High efficacy, panel with quality diodes (eg. Samsung): 25-30w/sq ft (265-320w/sqm)
2x2’, 4sq ft or 60x60 cm, 0.36 sqm space
Low efficacy lamp: 200-240 watt
Medium efficacy lamp: 120-160 watt
High efficacy lamp: 100-120 watt
4x4’, 16 sq ft or 120x120 cm, 1.44 sqm space
Low efficacy lamp: 800-960 watt
Medium efficacy lamp: 480-640 watt
High efficacy lamp: 400-480 watt
Again, these values are generalized and not written in stone. A lamp with a good light spread would require fewer watts to fully illuminate a specific area. On the other hand, a lamp with poor light spread would require more watts to illuminate the same area.
Still, applying the watt/sq ft principle gives a fair idea of how powerful a lamp is required for the job.