LED Grow Lamps & Light Terms: PPFD (PAR) & Light Footprint Maps

Measuring PPFD from LED grow light

In our previous article on PAR, PPFD, and PPF, we talked in short about PPFD (sometimes the term "PAR" is used incorrectly when referring to PPFD) and defined it as quantity of light (or light intensity) in a specific spot. Light consists of photons so PPFD could also be defined as photon density in a specific spot, which is pretty close to the
PPFD abbreviation's expansion:
Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density

which is measured in unit µmol/m2/s.

Just like we measure speed in miles/hour (or km/h) or any other unit, we can measure light intensity as well. Light intensity, or PPFD, is measured with a quantum sensor tool. This sensor reads how many photons hit it every second and presents a result.

Low intensity light PPFD: 100 µmol/m2/s

Medium intensity light PPFD: 300 µmol/m2/s

High intensity light PPFD: 600 µmol/m2/s

Direct sunlight during peak hours can reach around 1500 µmol/m2/s in mild-tempered countries and over 2000 µmol/m2/s in deserts like in Arizona. A cloudy sky brings down the PPFD levels by up to 95% though.


Why do we want to measure PPFD and why is it important for grow lights?

Since it’s possible to measure both the PPFD output from grow lights and also determine the ideal PPFD levels for plants, the grow light’s output should match the plant’s needs.

Let's say you’re growing tomatoes in a 2x2’ (60x60 cm) tent and you know that tomato is a high light intensity crop that likes PPFD 600 µmol/m2/s and above. Naturally, a grow light matching this plant’s needs should be selected. 

Or, if you’re growing microgreens, which are considered low light intensity plants, they will do well with PPFD 100-200 µmol/m2/s. These two scenarios would need very different grow lights.


General PPFD recommendations in µmol/m2/s:


Clones, cuttlings, and propagation:
Seedlings and younglings:

Small herbs and leafy greens:
(salad, basil, microgreens, etc)


Young high-light plants, early veg:
(tomato, pepper, cannabis)
Mid-age high-light plants, late veg:
Adult high-light plants, flowering:
Adult cannabis plants, late flowering:

PPFD (µmol/m2/s)






Understand your plants’ or grow area’s PPFD needs then find a grow light with adequate performance. 

Although plants don’t need maximum PPFD levels over their entire surface, averaging somewhere between 300-600 µmol/m2/s on most of the plant during flowering should be aimed for.
Here’s a tomato plant receiving 600 µmol/m2/s in the center and around 80 µmol/m2/s on its outer leaves.
Tomato plant grown indoors under LED lamp
Growing tomato with a 5.7W LED lamp
Tomato plant grown indoors under a generic 5.7W LED lamp

This has to do with light saturation point and light compensation point.

These two terms describe photosynthesis activity in relation to light intensity (PPFD) exposure. Doubling the PPFD at low levels can result in doubled photosynthetic activity, while at higher levels, above PPFD 400 µmol/m2/s, doubling the intensity no longer translates to doubling in photosynthetic activity.
Light compensation point and light saturation point

Rate of photosynthesis (0% to 100%) varies with light intensity (PPFD)

Light footprint maps or PPFD chart: how a lamp’s PPFD output should be presented and read.

A light footprint map, also called PPFD chart, shows a grow lamps PPFD results in various measured spots.

E.g.: 600 µmol/m2/s one foot (30 cm) in the center spot underneath the lamp.

Here we see three different lamps with three different 1-dimensional PPFD charts that we found online. For some reason, they all perform perfectly at 24” even though their PPFD levels at this height vary greatly. This is an example of a confusing or misleading PPFD chart. Be critical!PPFD charts


Here’s another footprint map, a 2-dimensional, that doesn’t make sense. The values should decrease somewhat linearly from the center, not jump back and forth. Same thing in the top left corner. Suspicious.


PPFD map



The more measurements a footprint map shows, the more detailed it is. The easier it is to understand how a lamp performs.

PPFD measurements in the center spot at various distances underneath the lamp are useful, but a proper light footprint map should also show PPFD readings not just vertically, but also horizontally; sideways, up, and down from the lamp’s center spot. 3-dimensional.

Afterall, how can we determine how large an area the lamp covers with high enough PPFD if we only get a center spot measurement? The PPFD levels drastically decrease in intensity the further away from the lamp’s center they are measured.

Here’s how we create our light footprint maps. We created a second version of our first map as we received feedback it wasn’t clear enough. Which one do you prefer?

LEDTonic Z5 light footprint map / PPFD map



Original design. Shows the PPFD values in a 3x3’ tent at three different hanging heights, 12", 18", 24" and in all directions from the center.

How to read and understand PPFD light footprint maps


Updated design. One quadrant per height.

LEDTonic Z5 LED grow light PPFD maps in 3x3' and 2x2'


Here’s the same light, our Z5, in a 3x3’ compared to a 2x2’ tent. We see that the 2x2’ area has higher PPFD as the light is reflected back from the walls into a narrower space than the 3x3’ tent.

Calculating average PPFD in a light footprint map

Calculating the average PPFD over two different areas also shows why a tight grow space is important.

Lenses, reflector cups, and diffusers

Generic household LED bulbs usually have a milky diffuser to spread the light somewhat evenly. These bulbs’ goal is to light up a room or a large area.

With grow lights, it’s the other way around. Some models come with lenses that focus light into a narrow area. The goal is to focus the light so that as many photons as possible hit a specific area underneath the lamp; a plant for instance.

These two lamps could even draw the same amount of power. As we test in our video, a 10W LED bulb has a vastly different light footprint map than a 10W Ikea LED grow bulb.
One LED lamp without focusing lenses and one LED lamp with focusing lenses

Generic 10W household LED lamp with a diffuser (left) and Ikea 10W grow bulb with focusing lenses (right)

Same goes for grow lights. Focusing light gives a smaller footprint than not focusing it, but focusing intensifies the light in the given area. 

If my goal would be to grow one high light intensity plant, I would likely pick a grow light with lenses that focus the light into an area big enough for my plant (let’s say 1x1’ or 30x30 cm). However, if I would be growing herbs, microgreens, salads in a 3x3’ (90x90 cm) area, I would rather pick a lamp that gives low light intensity output but over a large area.

Light spreading from a CFL or T5 lamp


Here’s the spread of light from a round bulb, a CFL or a HPS, for instance. The lines from the center spot light source show the spread of light.

Light spread from a LED grow light with no lenses


Spread of a LED lamp with no lenses. Take note that the light intensity decreases with angle or distance from center.

Light spread from a LED grow light with narrow focusing lenses

Lamps with really narrow focusing lenses, 30 degrees in this case, can create very high intensities but only in a small area.

We talk more about this as well as other topics in our video. If you find LED and light related information interesting, check out our full video. We elaborate on some specifics and also do more measurements and testing.

Happy farming!


Max - LEDTonic


Plants follow the law of the limiting factor, and more often than not, light is the limiting factor when growing indoors. However, as we provide our plants with more intense light, the rate of photosynthesis will slowly become “light-saturated”, and instead, CO2 will become the limiting factor for photosynthesis. How much CO2 to add and how intense light to supply, depends on what crop you are growing and your desired results. You don’t need to add CO2 to succeed but it may be worth doing if you are growing high-value crops that you want to push near their potential limit.


Hi I wonder
What is the relationship between the PPFD level and the CO2 concentration in the air
as I understand as the CO2 concentration is higher more Light intensity is needed

Max - LEDTonic


That is correct. Light footprints overlap and 100 PPFD + 100 PPFD will result in 200 PPFD. Sometimes, it’s easier to think of light in the same way as water. The difference is just that we can’t see the light “droplets” in the same way we see water droplets, but it behaves the same in this context. Spraying with two shower heads at the same spot will result in twice the amount of water, compared to spraying with only one shower head.

I hope this helped!


This may be a silly question, but if I buy two LED grow lights that put out 100 PPFD each and angle them both at one spot, would that make that central area 200 PPFD or would the level remain at 100?

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